Skin Disorders
Bookmark and Share
   Abscess
   Acne
   Acquired Melanocytic Nevocellular Nevi
   Acral Lentiginous Melanoma
   Acute HIV Syndrome
   Acute Lymphangitis
   Acute Sun Damage
   Adult T Cell Leukemia
   Adverse Cutaneous Drug Reactions
   Albinism
   Alopecia Areata
   Androgenetic Alopecia
   Aphthous Ulcer
   Atherosclerosis
   Bacillary Angiomatosis
   Bacterial Infections
   Basal Cell Carcinoma
   Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome
   Behcet's Syndrome
   Benign Cutaneous Neoplasms
   Calciphylaxis
   Candidiasis
   Capillary Hemangioma of Infancy
   CVL
   Cat-Scratch Disease
   Chancroid
   Chromomycosis
   Chronic Lupus Panniculitis
   Chronic Venous Insufficiency
   Clark Melanocytic Nevus
   Congenital Nevomelanocytic Nevus
   Crest Syndrome
   Cryoglobulinemia
   Cutaneous Candidiasis
   Cutaneous Larva Migrans
   Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus
   Cutaneous and Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis
   Cutaneous Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infections
   Cutaneous Reactions to Arthropod Bites
   Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma
   Dermatitis
   Dermatofibroma
   Dermatofibroma
   Dermatoheliosis
   Dermatomyositis
   Dermatophytoses
   Dermatophytosis
   Desmoplastic Melanoma
   Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis
   Disseminated Cryptococcosis
   Disseminated Gonococcal Infection
   Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
   Donovanosis
   Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome
   Drug-Induced Acute Urticaria
   Drug-Induced Pigmentation
   Eosinophilic Folliculitis
   Erysipelas and Cellulitis
   Erythema Infectiosum
   Erythrasma
   Erythropoietic Protoporphyria
   Exanthematous Drug Reactions
   Exfoliative Erythroderma Syndrome
   Extramammary Paget's Disease
   Eye Stye
   Fixed Drug Eruption
   Gangrenous Cellulitis
   Genital Candidiasis
   Giant Cell Arteritis
   Glucagonoma Syndrome
   Graft Versus Host Disease
   Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease
   Herpes Gestationis
   Herpes Simplex Virus: Genital Infections
   Herpes Simplex Virus Infection
   Herpes Simplex Virus: Infections Associated Systemic Immunocompromise
   Herpes Simplex Virus
   Herpes Zoster
   Hirsutism
   Histoplasmosis
   HIV Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome
   Human Papillomavirus: Mucosal Infections
   Human Papillomavirus: Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ
   Human Papillomavirus
   Hypersensitivity Vasculitis
   Hypertrophic Scars and Keloid
   Ichthyosis
   Impetigo and Ecthyma
   Infectious Exanthems
   Infectious Folliculitis
   Infective Endocarditis
   Infestations of the Skin
   Kaposi's Sarcoma
   Kawasaki's Disease
   Keratoacanthoma


Home :: Acute HIV Syndrome

Acute HIV Syndrome

The acute HIV syndrome is characterized by an infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome or aseptic meningitis syndrome with fever, lymphadenopathy, meningitis, GI symptoms, and a characteristic infectious exanthem, an enanthem, and genital ulceration.

Causes of Acute HIV Syndrome

After primary HIV infection, billions of virions are produced and destroyed each day; a concomitant daily turnover of actively infected CD4+ cells is also in the billions. HIV infection is relatively unique among human viral infections in that, despite robust cellular and humoral immune responses that are mounted after primary infection, the virus is not cleared completely from the body (with a few exceptions). Chronic infection develops that persists with varying degrees of virus replication for a median of 10 years before an individual becomes clinically ill.

Symptoms of Acute HIV Syndrome

  • fever
  • headache
  • maculopapular rash
  • oral ulcers
  • lymphadenopathy
  • arthralgia
  • pharyngitis
  • malaise
  • weight loss
  • fatigue
  • muscular stiffness or aching

Diagnosis

Demonstrated seroconversion of anti-HIV antibodies by ELISA, confirmed by Western blot, confirms diagnosis of primary HIV infection. Established HIV infection can be confirmed by these serologic tests as well as by isolation of HIV from blood or CSF or demonstration of p24 antigen.

Treatment

HIV Prevention Counseling

Sex Education The most common mode of HIV transmission is during sexual intercourse. Currently, in terms of numbers of new HIV infections, female-to-male and male-to-female transmission is much more common than male-to-male. Safer sexual practices must be taught at an early age.

Transfusions and Transplantation Blood and blood by-products must be tested before administration. HIV infection must be ruled out in donors of any transplanted organ.

Treatment of ARS Symptomatic. Efficacy of antiretroviral therapy at this stage still controversial.

Treatment of Asymptomatic HIV Infection Early diagnosis offers the opportunity for counseling and for assistance in preventing the transmission of HIV infection to others.

Antiretroviral Therapy Combinations of zidovudine/didanosine and zidovudine/zalcitabine are preferred to zidovudine monotherapy. Protease inhibitors such as indinavir and ritonavir reduce viral load by 2 to 3 logs in some individuals. Combinations of two or more drugs are currently recommended. Recent data on HIV pathogenesis, the development of methods for quantitation of plasma HIV RNA, clinical trial data, and the availability of new drugs have resulted in profound changes of therapeutic approaches.

It is now evident that in all stages of the infection the virus replicates at high levels in the lymphoid tissue, as reflected by the amount of HIV RNA in the plasma. This large amount of virus turns over rapidly with a virion half-life of less then 6 h and an estimated 10 billion virus particles produced daily. Shortly after infection, each individual establishes his or her own quasi­steady-state level of plasma HIV RNA, which largely determines the rate of CD4 cell destruction and ultimately the natural history of this infection. At any time point of the infection this set-point of plasma HIV RNA correlates inversely with prognosis and, in fact, can be used to predict the natural course of the disease.

Inhibition of viral replication with even potent antiretroviral agents either at suboptimal doses and/or as monotherapy by about 70 to 90% is gradually lost within a few months, coincident with the development of resistance. Nevertheless, when antiretroviral agents of different classes with nonoverlapping genetic patterns are used in combination, their genetic barrier to simultaneous resistance is significantly increased.

Antiretroviral agents approved for treatment of HIV in one or more countries can be divided into three classes of drugs: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), and protease inhibitors (PI). They are directed against two target-enzymes-HIV reverse transcriptase and HIV protease-thereby interfering with formation of proviral DNA and virus assembly, respectively.

Combination therapy can slow down or even prevent selection of drug-resistant strains and is associated with significant clinical benefit. Current treatment recommendations favor the combined usage of two NRTI and one PI (preferably Indinavir, nelfinavir, or ritonavir) or two NRTI and one NNRTI.

Treatment is now recommended for all patients with HIV RNA levels above 5000 to 10,000 copies/mL plasma. For patients at low risk of progression (low plasma HIV RNA level and high CD4+ cell count), particularly those who are not committed to complex antiretroviral regimens, therapy might be safely deferred. These patients should be reevaluated every 3 to 6 months. HAART, with a combination of 3 to 4 drugs, has become the standard of care for treatment of HIV infection. None of the drugs currently available can eradicate HIV infection; but used in combination, the drugs can decrease viral replication, improve immunologic status, and prolong life.

More Skin Disorders
 
   Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis
   Leg Ulcers
   Lentigo Maligna
   Leprosy
   Leukemia Cutis
   Livedo Reticularis
   Localized Infection
   Lupus Erythematosus
   Lyme Borreliosis
   Lymphogranuloma Venereum
   Lymphomatoid Papulosis
   Malignant Melanoma of the Mucosa
   Mammary Paget's Disease
   Mastocytosis Syndromes
   Measles
   Melasma
   Merkel Cell Carcinoma
   Metastatic Cancer to the Skin
   Molluscum Contagiosum
   Mycetoma
   Mycobacterium Fortuitum Complex Infection
   Mycobacterium Marinum Infection
   Mycobacterium Ulcerans Infection
   Necrobiosis Lipoidica
   Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infections
   Neurofibromatosis
   Nodular Melanoma
   Nodular Vasculitis
   Nongenital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection
   North American Blastomycosis
   Onychomycosis
   Oral Hairy Leukoplakia
   Oropharyngeal Candidiasis
   Other Viral Infections
   Papulosquamous Conditions
   Pediculosis Capitis
   Pediculosis Pubis
   Pediculosis
   Photoallergic Drug Induced Photosensitivity
   Phototoxic Drug Induced Photosensitivity
   Phytophotodermatitis
   Pitted Keratolysis
   Pityriasis Versicolor
   Polyarteritis Nodosa
   Polymorphous Light Eruption
   Porphyria Cutanea Tarda
   Port-Wine Stain
   Premalignant and Malignant Skin Tumors
   Pressure Ulcers
   Pruritic Urticarial Papules
   Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum
   Pyogenic Granuloma
   Radiation Dermatitis
   Raynaud's Disease
   Reiter's Syndrome
   Rocky Mountain Spotted Fevers
   Rosacea
   Rubella
   Xanthelasma
   Xanthomas
   X-Linked Hyper-IgM Syndrome
   Xeroderma Pigmentosum
   Yaws
   Yellow Fever
   Yellow Nail Syndrome
   Zygomycete
   Zinc Deficiency

Skin Disorders || Contact Us || Tweet

Copyright © Skin-disorders.net All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer - The data contained in the Skin-disorders.net Web pages is provided for the purpose of educational purposes and information only. It is not intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice and shall not create a physician - patient relationship. We are not responsible for any consequence resulted from using this information. Please always consult your physician for medical advices and treatment.